“Franklin Hiram King coined the term permanent agriculture in his classic book from 1911, Farmers of Forty Centuries: Or Permanent Agriculture
in China, Korea and Japan. In this context, permanent agriculture is understood as agriculture that can be sustained indefinitely.
In 1929, Joseph Russell Smith took up the term as the subtitle for Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture, a book in which he summed up his long experience experimenting with fruits and nuts as crops for human food and animal feed. A revised and updated edition was published in 1950. Smith observed, “Forest — field — plow — desert — that is the cycle of the hills under most plow agricultures… When we develop an agriculture that fits this land, it will become an almost endless vista of green, crop-yielding trees.” Smith saw the world as an inter-related whole and suggested mixed systems of trees and crops underneath…”